The ambulance service (emergency treatment) operates around the clock, providing emergency care to adults and children, both at the scene of the incident and on its way to the hospital in conditions that threaten health or life caused by sudden illnesses, accidents, poisonings and injuries requiring emergency medical intervention.
Tasks of urgent medical care
The tasks of urgent medical care include:
- emergency medical care at the prehospital stage in conditions threatening the life and health of the patient or those around him or her caused by sudden illnesses, exacerbations of chronic diseases, accidents, injuries and poisoning, pregnancy complications and childbirth;
- transportation of patients to inpatient healthcare facilities;
- participation in the elimination of the medical consequences of emergencies, accidents, disasters and natural disasters.
The ambulance service works in high alert mode during possible emergency situations.
At the same time, emergency medical services ensure the interaction of the teams with territorial health authorities, state health organizations, operational-duty services, etc.
In emergency mode, the ambulance service provides:
- public health emergency alert;
- the direction of emergency care to the border of the emergency zone;
- medical and evacuation measures to the victims.
Calls received at the ambulance station by 911 agreed with the district executive committee are accepted by dispatchers who determine the category of urgency of the call.
What is an emergency medical condition?
An emergency medical condition is a patient’s sudden onset of diseases, conditions and (or) exacerbation of chronic diseases that pose a threat to the life of the patient and (or) others requiring urgent medical intervention:
- loss of consciousness by the patient;
- high-temperature rash in children under three years of age;
- poisoning the patient with chemicals or drugs;
- hanging, drowning;
- a burn of any degree and depth in a child up to three years;
- extensive burn (several areas of the body);
- deep and extensive wounds;
- acute respiratory failure;
- an accident with injured persons;
- electrical injury;
- falling from a height;
This may be also a condition associated with a sharp deterioration in the patient’s health when it is not possible to clarify the reasons for treatment:
- heart rhythm disturbance (arrhythmia);
- heart attack;
- asthma attack;
- foreign body;
- bleeding (gastrointestinal, uterine, nasal);
- sudden impaired motor activity.
Emergency calls occur when a patient suddenly has diseases, conditions and / or exacerbation of chronic diseases, conditions without obvious signs of a threat to the patient’s life, requiring urgent medical intervention:
- pain in the abdomen, back, chest;
- inappropriate behavior;
- renal colic;
- high temperature (if the temperature is not reduced by oral medications);
- acute urinary retention;
- food poisoning;
- sudden change in behavior in a child up to 1-year-old;
- transportation of the patient on a call received from a medical professional.
However, if your call for an ambulance does not belong to any of the above conditions, then the nurse or paramedic for receiving calls from the ambulance service must give you recommendations on which state health organization you need to apply for medical care.
In addition to the organization of health care, medical assistance can also be provided when an ambulance team leaves for the patient’s location.
Ambulance teams are divided into:
- paramedic (they perform most of the challenges: childbirth, high blood pressure, abdominal pain, fever, broken arm or leg, etc.
Medical teams in their turn are divided into several groups:
- General-purpose teams are sent to the address for the provision of urgent care to adults and children;
- Resuscitation teams sent in cases of terminal conditions for resuscitation and intensive care; accidents and emergencies, drowning, hanging, electric shock and lightning, severe injuries and accidents, acute poisoning and allergic reactions of the immediate type, massive bleeding of various origins, coma in patients, shock and convulsive status, pathological conditions accompanied by acute cardiovascular and respiratory failure;
- Intensive care teams carry out the whole range of measures for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intensive care for victims in the absence of a resuscitation team at the prehospital stage. Intensive care teams go to the challenge of patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system, complicated by hypertensive crisis, thrombosis or embolism of the pulmonary artery, diseases of the nervous system (acute cerebrovascular accident, non-stopping convulsive syndrome, coma), injuries (traffic accidents, falling from heights, industrial and criminal injuries, extensive burns, drowning, electrical injuries) and in other emergency situations;
- Pediatric teams are sent to children under 16-18 years of age;
- Psychiatric teams are sent to patients who have mental disorders, suicidal attempts, inappropriate behavior, etc.
In the absence of free specialized ambulance teams, any ambulance team can be sent to a patient in case of emergency, with the exception of calling the ambulance team to patients with mental disorders (diseases).
Ambulance teams have all the necessary equipment to provide care at the prehospital stage.