X-ray (projection radiography, plain film radiography, roentgenography,) is a study of the internal structure of objects that are projected using X-rays onto a special film, paper or a computer screen.
Types of x-rays
- fluoroscopy, radiography of the lungs;
- functional trachea examination;
- linear larynx tomography;
- fluoroscopy, radiography of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum by the method of simultaneous double contrasting;
- fluoroscopy, radiography of the small intestine using the method of the passage of contrast medium;
- examination of the colon using the method of contrast medium passage, irrigoscopy;
- radiography, linear tomography of bones and joints;
- functional examination of the spine, feet, temporomandibular joints;
- study of the urinary system (urography);
- targeted radiography of teeth;
- x-ray osteodensitometry.
How is x-ray done?
Before the procedure, the patient must take off the jewelry, belt, remove all metal objects from the pockets, phone, etc. In some cases, for example, when examining the chest or spine, the doctor may ask you to undress to the waist. X-rays of limbs can be performed in clothing. Those parts of the body that are not examined are covered with special protective lead aprons. The doctor also puts on a protective suit and leaves for the next room. Pictures are taken in different positions – mainly lying or standing. Depending on the projection in which the image is required, the doctor may ask you to change the position.
In what cases is this procedure prescribed?
With the development of medicine, other diagnostic methods began to appear, giving doctors accurate information about the patient’s condition. However, there are areas when X-ray examination is used more often than any other. These are injuries, especially bone, examination of the mammary glands and lungs. By the way, X-ray has a lower cost in comparison with modern CT and MRI. During pregnancy, an x-ray is prescribed in the only case – if the patient needs to take an image of the teeth. In this case, the stomach and genital area are carefully covered with a protective apron. However, without an emergency, the expectant mother will not even have a dental x-ray.
X-rays are prescribed to children with the consent of their parents and only in emergency cases. Injuries, heart defects, a doctor’s suspicion of obstruction, the presence of a foreign object, for example, in the stomach or intestines, can become the reason why such a serious examination is performed on a child. Those parts of the body that are not exposed to radiation, and especially the genital area, should be carefully protected with a non-transparent blanket. X-ray examination of infants and newborns is even less common. Children are recommended to perform an ultrasound scan. But in the case of birth head or hip joint injuries, the doctor may prescribe an examination. The parents give their final consent.